However, unlike traditional advertising, which is subject to very strict rules, influencer advertising can fall through the cracks of ad disclosure.
The commercial nature of influencer posts is not always identifiable as such, with ads featuring alongside similarly styled, but independent editorial content. Companies using influencers as ambassadors for their products and brands also have greater freedom than in conventional advertising, developing sales pitches which sometimes flout the rules.
This perceived lack of transparency is described by the European Economic & Social Committee (EESC) as dangerous for consumers in general and particularly for minors who are constantly on social media. Exposing this vulnerable group to covert advertising could potentially harm their physical, psychological, social or emotional development.
Should the EU do something about this? “In fact, the EU already has some mechanisms in place to deal with influencers, which are covered by legislation on both advertisers and sellers/traders. However, we think it would be desirable to have a comprehensive approach given the fast rise of this phenomenon,” says Bernardo Hernández Bataller, rapporteur for an EESC report on this issue. “We would need specific regulation to cover the rights and obligations of the people involved, so that all legal operators and consumers know exactly what is and what is not acceptable.”
Some Member States have gone it alone (France, Spain and the Belgian region of Flanders). But a “hard core” of EU rules would be more effective, argues the EESC, as it would leave no loopholes allowing different Member States to take a softer line, although they could still take tougher measures if they wanted to.
The Committee suggests that the EU should set specific obligations for both the administrators of the video-sharing platforms and social media networks on which influencers operate, and for content creators/influencers themselves.
The basic principle is that advertisers should leave consumers in no doubt that what they are engaging with is advertising. And they should not mislead consumers or cause serious offence.
Influencers, says the EESC, should:
· include a prominent label upfront to highlight that a post is a marketing communication;
· comply with sector-specific rules designed to protect the health and safety of consumers and users, especially minors and other vulnerable groups;
· be liable if they fail to make it sufficiently clear when they are being paid to endorse or promote a product or service.
Beyond these, there are issues concerning influencers as a trade: “What should their position be in employment law? What about the tax issues raised by influencer advertising? How should we tax influencer income and the profits influencers generate? How should we tax the added value they create?”, asks Stefano Palmieri, co-rapporteur for the opinion. “These are all matters that need to be tackled – sooner rather than later”.